Surg Endosc. 2020 Sep 1. doi: 10.1007/s00464-020-07929-2. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Margin status is an important prognostic factor for treating colorectal cancer. This study aimed to investigate the usefulness of a multimodal spectroscopic tissue scanner for real-time cancer diagnosis without tissue staining.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) and fluorescence spectra (FS) of < 1-mm-sized paired cancer and normal mucosa tissue were acquired using custom-built spectroscopic tissue scanners. For FS, we analyzed wavelengths and intensities at peaks and highest intensities near (± 1.25 nm) the known fluorescence spectral peaks of collagen (380 nm), reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH, 460 nm), and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD, 550 nm). For DRS, we performed a similar analysis near the peaks of strong absorbers, oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb; 414 nm, 540 nm, and 576 nm) and deoxyhemoglobin (deoxyHb; 432 nm and 556 nm). Logistic regression analysis for these parameters was performed in the testing set.
RESULTS: We acquired 17,735 spectra of cancer tissues and 9438 of normal tissues from 30 patients. Intensity peaks of representative normal spectra for FS and DRS were higher than those of representative cancer spectra. Logistic regression analysis showed wavelength and intensity at peaks, and the intensities of the peak wavelength of NADH, FAD, deoxyHb, and oxyHb had significant coefficients. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.927. The scanner had 100%, 64.3%, and 85.3% sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: The spectroscopic tissue scanner has high sensitivity and accuracy and provides real-time intraoperative resection margin assessments and should be further investigated as an alternative to frozen section.