Potential use of serum IGF-1 and E-cadherin as biomarkers of colorectal cancer

Colorectal Cancer

Colorectal Dis. 2020 Sep 14. doi: 10.1111/codi.15360. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND: In spite of many efforts, reliable biomarkers for prediction and diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) are still missing. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and E-cadherin are recognized as potential biomarkers, but their diagnostic capacity is largely unexplored in CRC.

AIM: To investigate IGF-1 and E-cadherin levels with respect to various characteristics of CRC and to estimate their diagnostic potential.

METHODS: 70 CRC patients and 75 healthy individuals were enrolled. IGF-1 and E-cadherin were determined by using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Predictive and diagnostic capacity of IGF-1 and E-cadherin was estimated by logistic regression analysis and by determination of the area under Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve (AUC).

RESULTS: Concentrations of IGF-1 were lower (P=0.019), while levels of E-cadherin were higher (P<0.001) in CRC patients than in controls. IGF-1 concentration decreased in parallel with age and progression of CRC (P=0.023). Also, IGF-1 was lower in men with CRC than in women (P=0.003). E-cadherin levels were unaffected by variations in either anthropometric characteristics of CRC patients, or localization, grade and stage of the tumour. Both IGF-1 and E-cadherin were independently associated with CRC (P=0.040; P<0.001, respectively). The diagnostic accuracy of IGF-1 was estimated as acceptable (AUC=0.757; P<0.001), while diagnostic accuracy of E-cadherin as outstanding (AUC=0.954; P<0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: Decreased IGF-1 and increased E-cadherin levels were found in CRC patients. IGF-1, but not E-cadherin concentrations, differed according to age, gender and stage of CRC. Both markers were independently associated with the presence of the disease, while E-cadherin demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy.