Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2021 Jan 1;26:706-716.
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an inducible enzyme which triggers the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. COX-2 is activated in response to inflammatory stimuli and is one of the major molecules that is involved in the development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). Consistent with such a conceptual framework, it has been shown that COX-2 inhibitors prevent the carcinogenesis of CRC and aid in the treatment of sporadic or familial cases of CRC as shown by an overall increase in the survival
rate. However, prolonged use of these inhibitors is associated with increase risk of development of cardiovascular complications, implying that further research is required to identify COX-2 inhibitors that are associated with lower risks of such complications.