Oncology. 2020 Oct 30:1-9. doi: 10.1159/000510944. Online ahead of print.
According to the 2018 GLOBOCAN database, colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignancies and leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. During the last decades, considerable progress has been made in understanding the complex pathogenetic mechanisms involved in this neoplastic disease. Due to the need to improve treatment responses and clinical outcomes of colorectal cancer patients, the identification of new molecular biomarkers became a crucial spot in clinical oncology. As
biological indicators of a specific pathological or physiological process, molecular markers play a central role in cancer detection, diagnosis, outcome prediction, and treatment choice. Considering the existing evidence that malignancies originating from distinct colonic regions behave differently, it is clear that specific biomarkers can be associated to right- or left-sided colon carcinomas, reflecting the distinct molecular signatures of these different tumor entities. The aim of this review is to summarize the main differences among tumors arising from proximal and distal colon in terms of current and emerging biomarkers.