A Method of High-Resolution Radiotherapy Delivery Fluences with a Pair of Fields with Orthogonal Collimator Settings: A Study on Ten Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients

Head and Neck Cancer

Galić S, et al. J Med Phys 2020.


CONTEXT: Introduction of dual-layer multileaf collimator (MLC) radiotherapy linear accelerators into clinical practice is an important development in advanced external beam radiotherapy. A method of delivering comparable high-resolution fluences with a single-layer MLC is presented.

AIMS: The aims of this study are to present new algorithms and approaches to define high-resolution hypermodulated fluences, obtain orthogonal decomposition of fluences, and deliver them on a linear accelerator with single MLC from two perpendicular collimator settings.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: High-resolution fluences were defined using Monte Carlo (MC) calculation. A novel use of a limited-memory, bounded, Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno algorithm was used to decompose such fluences to ones deliverable with a pair of fields with mutually orthogonal collimator settings. Such a technique, here named cross motion leaf calculator (XMLC), is compared against single sliding window (SSW) technique typically used in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). An electronic portal imaging device (EPID) is used, and the results were compared with gamma analysis. Furthermore, MC was used to determine dose distributions for computed tomography images of ten head-and-neck cancer patients.

RESULTS: Gamma analysis (3%, 3 mm) against ideal fluence is considerably more favorable to XMLC (94% ± 4%) versus SSW (76% ± 5%). Furthermore, the dose-volume histogram (DVH) analysis showed that XMLC enables delivery of fluences superior to that of IMRT and these results in clinically relevant enhancements in DVH results.

CONCLUSIONS: At the time of writing of this study, there were more than 12,000 medical linear accelerators in clinical use, and XMLC can prove itself useful wherever linac is equipped with MLC but cannot delivery latest techniques, such as volumetric modulated arc therapy.