The differences of immunologic and TP53 mutant phenotypes between synchronous and metachronous head and neck cancer and esophageal cancer

Head and Neck Cancer

Oral Oncol. 2020 Aug 5;111:104945. doi: 10.1016/j.oraloncology.2020.104945. Online ahead of print.


OBJECTIVE: To determine the tumor genomic, immunologic expression, and risk factors of treatment outcomes for patients with double head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).

METHODS: We reviewed patients with double HNSCC and ESCC between 1995 and 2014. The TP53 genomic mutation, CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and tumor programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression of paired HNSCC and ESCC were analyzed.

RESULTS: A total of 116 patients (57 metachronous and 59 synchronous) were included. There were 88 (75.86%) patients with HNSCC and 80 (68.97%) with ESCC harboured TP53 disruptive mutation. Nearly 106 (91.38%) patients had different clonality of TP53 mutation in paired HNSCC and ESCC. The immunologic expression of synchronous and metachronous patients was significantly different. Compared to the metachronous patients, the synchronous patients had significantly higher HNSCC CD8+ TIL (p = 0.03), ESCC CD8+ TIL (p < 0.001), HNSCC PD-L1+ tumor proportion score (TPS, p = 0.04), and ESCC PD-L1+ TPS (p = 0.04). Furthermore, among the synchronous patients, the immunologic expression between HNSCC and ESCC was significantly correlated. The CD8+ TIL and PD-L1 TPS had strongly (r = 0.63, p < 0.0001) and moderately (r = 0.42, p = 0.001) positive correlations, respectively. Finally, advanced stage (III/IV) HNSCC was a significant factor for disease-free (p = 0.03) and overall survival (p = 0.005).

CONCLUSION: In patients with double HNSCC and ESCC, nearly all HNSCC and ESCC were of multicentric origin. For the synchronous patients, there was more adaptive immune resistance in HNSCC and ESCC. The immunologic expression between paired HNSCC and ESCC was also significantly correlated.