Ahmed AG, et al. Molecules 2020.
Lung cancer is the primary cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and development of novel lung cancer preventive and therapeutic agents are urgently needed. Brassica nigra (black mustard) seeds are commonly consumed in several Asian and African countries. Mustard seeds previously exhibited significant anticancer activities against several cancer types. In the present study, we have investigated various cellular and molecular mechanisms of anticancer effects of an ethanolic extract of B. nigra seeds against A549 and H1299 human non-small cell lung cancer cell lines. B. nigra extract showed a substantial growth-inhibitory effect as it reduced the viability and clonogenic survival of A549 and H1299 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. B. nigra extract induced cellular apoptosis in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion as evidenced from increased caspase-3 activity. Furthermore, treatment of both A549 and H1299 cells with B. nigra extract alone or in combination with camptothecin induced DNA double-strand breaks as evidenced by upregulation of γH2A histone family member X, Fanconi anemia group D2 protein, Fanconi anemia group J protein, ataxia-telangiectesia mutated and Rad3-related protein. Based on cell cycle analysis, B. nigra extract significantly arrested A549 and H1299 cells at S and G2/M phases. Additionally, B. nigra extract suppressed the migratory and invasive properties of both cell lines, downregulated the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2), MMP9, and Snail and upregulated the expression of E-cadherin at mRNA and protein levels. Taken together, these findings indicate that B. nigra seed extract may have an important anticancer potential against human lung cancer which could be mediated through simultaneous and differential regulation of proliferation, apoptosis, DNA damage, cell cycle, migration, and invasion.