Acquired resistance to osimertinib in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer: mechanisms and clinical outcomes

Lung Cancer

Mu Y, et al. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2020.


PURPOSE: Osimertinib, a third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine-kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI), has demonstrated substantial clinical benefit in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who were resistant to early-generation EGFR-TKIs and had acquired a T790M mutation. The aim of our study was to identify the mechanisms underlying resistance to osimertinib and to correlate them with clinical outcomes.

METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed patients with advanced NSCLC who received osimertinib for T790M-mutated acquired resistance to prior EGFR-TKIs between March 1, 2017 and December 31, 2018. Patients with paired molecular data of pre-osimertinib and after resistance development, which were not confirmed with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) transformation, were included in the molecular analysis set.

RESULTS: Of 49 patients evaluated in the molecular analysis set, 24 patients maintained T790M mutation, while 25 patients exhibited T790M-loss. Molecular modifications were identified in 27 of 49 patients including EGFR acquired mutations (C797S, C796S, G796S, V802I, V834L, E758D and G724S), non-EGFR-dependent mutations (PIK3CA, ALK, BRAF, KRAS and TP53), EGFR amplification and MET amplification. At data cutoff, median progression-free survival (PFS) was 9.3 months in the T790M-retain group compared with 7.8 months in T790M-loss patients (P = 0.053). Median PFS was significantly longer in patients with EGFR-dependent resistance mechanism (13.5 months) than in those with alternative pathway activation (8.2 months; P = 0.012).

CONCLUSIONS: The study revealed heterogeneous mechanisms of resistance to osimertinib in advanced NSCLC patients and their association with clinical outcomes. Patients who maintained T790M mutation or with EGFR-dependent resistance mechanism had longer clinical outcome benefits.