Lowczak A, et al. J Clin Med 2020.
Large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is a rare malignancy with poor prognosis. The rationale of the study was to determine the survival of LCNEC patients in I-IIIA clinical stages who underwent resection. A total of 53 LCNEC (89%) and combined LCNEC (11%) patients in stages I-IIIA who underwent surgery with radical intent between 2002-2018 were included in the current study. Overall survival (OS) and time to recurrence (TTR) were estimated. Uni- and multivariable analyses were conducted
using Cox-regression model. Patients were treated with surgery alone (51%), surgery with radiochemotherapy (4%), with radiotherapy (2%), with adjuvant chemotherapy (41%), or with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (2%). The median (95% Confidence Interval (CI)) OS and TTR was 52 months (20.1-102.1 months) and 20 months (7.0-75.6 months), respectively. Patients treated in clinical stage I showed better OS than patients in stages II-IIIA (p = 0.008). Patients with R0 resection margin (negative margin, no tumor at the margin) and without lymph node metastasis had significantly better TTR. In the multivariate analysis, age was an independent factor influencing OS. Recurrence within 1 year was noted in more than half cases of LCNEC. R0 resection margin and N0 status (no lymph node metastasis) were factors improving TTR. Age >64 years was observed as a main independent factor influencing OS.