Xiao K, et al. J Clin Pharm Ther 2020.
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Metformin has received increasing attention owing to its potential protective effect against cancer. We aimed to summarize evidence regarding the association between metformin and the risk or survival in lung cancer patients with type 2 diabetes.
METHODS: We selected observational studies examining the association between exposure to metformin and the risk or survival in lung cancer. Available publications were searched in PubMed, Cochrane Library, ScienceDirect, Wiley and SpringerLink databases. Meta-analysis was performed with hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) as effect measures for risk or survival in lung cancer.
RESULTS: Eighteen studies (eight on lung cancer risk and ten on lung cancer survival) were included. Metformin treatment was associated with decreased lung cancer incidence (HR 0.78; 95% CI 0.70-0.86) and increased lung cancer survival (HR 0.65; 95% CI 0.55-0.77). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, a significant protective effect of metformin use on lung cancer risk was observed among Asian patients (HR 0.66; 95% CI 0.56-0.76), but not in European patients. On the other hand, the protective effect of metformin use on lung cancer survival was observed in both Asian (HR 0.57; 95% CI 0.49-0.66) and non-Asian (HR 0.79; 95% CI 0.71-0.88) patients. In the subgroup analysis by histology, a protective effect of metformin on lung cancer survival was observed in both non-small-cell lung cancer (HR 0.68; 95% CI 0.54-0.84) and small-cell lung cancer (HR 0.52; 95% CI 0.39-0.69). Funnel plot showed that no significant publication bias existed.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that metformin is significantly associated with a decreased risk and increased survival in lung cancer.