Honda Y. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 2020.
The frequency of respiratory infections as an infection in cancer patients is high. Several factors increase the risk of respiratory infections in cancer patients. These include airway obstruction, disruption of mucosal surfaces and treatment-related factors, such as radiation and chemotherapy. It has also been reported that the frequency and mortality of drug-induced lung injury associated with antineoplastic drugs are high in Japan. In the diagnosis and treatment of drug-induced lung disease,
it is important to distinguish pneumonia as an infectious disorder. Immune checkpoint inhibitors(ICIs)have been widely introduced to treat several types of malignancies. It is currently believed that ICIs do not increase the risk of infections. However, immune-related adverse events(irAEs)induced by ICIs may necessitate the administration of immunosuppressive agents, which could cause opportunistic infections. Furthermore, several reports describe reactivation tuberculosis without irAEs or immunosuppressants. Further studies are needed to prevent the development of tuberculosis in patients receiving ICIs.