Zhang LL, et al. Acta Pharmacol Sin 2020.
Anlotinib, a multitarget tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is effective as a third-line treatment against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, acquired resistance occurs during its administration. To understand the molecular mechanisms of anlotinib resistance, we characterized chromatin accessibility in both the parental and anlotinib-resistant lung cancer cell line NCI-H1975 through ATAC-seq. Compared with the parental cells, we identified 2666 genomic regions with greater accessibility in
anlotinib-resistant cells, in which angiogenesis-related processes and the motifs of 21 transcription factors were enriched. Among these transcription factors, TFAP2A was upregulated. TFAP2A knockdown robustly diminished tumor-induced angiogenesis and partially rescued the anti-angiogenic activity of anlotinib. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis indicated that 2280 genes were downregulated in anlotinib-resistant cells with TFAP2A knocked down, among which the PDGFR, TGF-β, and VEGFR signaling pathways were enriched. Meanwhile, we demonstrated that TFAP2A binds to accessible sites within BMP4 and HSPG2. Collectively, this study suggests that TFAP2A accelerates anlotinib resistance by promoting tumor-induced angiogenesis.