Anwar S, et al. Biomedicines 2020.
Design and development of potential pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 3 (PDK3) inhibitors have gained attention because of their possible therapeutic uses in lung cancer therapy. In the present study, the binding affinity of naturally occurring alkaloids, hordenine, vincamine, tryptamine, cinchonine, and colcemid was measured with PDK3. The molecular docking and fluorescence binding studies suggested that all these compounds show a considerable binding affinity for PDK3. Among them, the affinity of
hordenine to the PDK3 was excellent (K = 106 M-1) which was further complemented by isothermal titration calorimetric measurements. Hordenine binds in the active site pocket of PDK3 and forms a significant number of non-covalent interactions with functionally important residues. All-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulation study suggested that the PDK3-hordenine complex is stabilized throughout the trajectory of 100ns and leads to fewer conformational changes. The enzyme inhibition studies showed that hordenine inhibits the activity of PDK3 with an IC50 value of 5.4 µM. Furthermore, hordenine showed a cytotoxic effect on human lung cancer cells (A549 and H1299) with an admirable IC50 value. However, it did not inhibit the growth of HEK293 cells up to 200 µM, indicating its non-toxicity to non-cancerous cell lines. In summary, our findings provide the basis for the therapeutic implication of hordenine and its derivatives in lung cancer and PDK3-related diseases after required in vivo validation.