Miyazaki T, et al. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2020.
OBJECTIVE: We compared outcomes after surgery or stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) among patients with metachronous primary lung cancer (MPLC).
METHODS: Patients with MPLC were treated with either surgery (2008-2018) or SBRT (2010-2018). We used propensity score matching (PSM) to reduce bias from various clinicopathological factors. MPLC was defined by the Martini and Melamed criteria.
RESULTS: Of 77 patients, 51 underwent surgery and 26 received SBRT. Most median clinicopathological characteristics did not significantly differ between the surgery and SBRT groups (male sex: 67% vs 65%; age: 73 vs 77 years; time after first surgery: 6.2 vs 4.7 years; lobectomy as first procedure: 82% vs 85%; second tumor size: 11 vs 12 mm; clinical stage I: 96% vs 100%; CEA: 2.9 vs 3.0 ng/ml). However, the surgery group had significantly more ipsilateral second tumors (n = 71, 58%, P = 0.003), better performance status (P = 0.03), and preserved lung function (P = 0.02). Surgery, thus, tended to be selected for patients with good physical function and for the MPLC in the contralateral side. Five-year overall survival did not significantly differ between the surgery and SBRT groups, either before PSM (86.5% vs 65.8%, P = 0.24, log-rank) or after PSM (100% vs 84.4%, P = 0.73).
CONCLUSIONS: Surgery and SBRT for MPLC patients are safe and feasible treatments with similar outcomes. However, this finding should be verified by a random controlled trial with a larger study cohort.