Iguchi T, et al. J Vasc Interv Radiol 2020.
PURPOSE: To retrospectively compare the outcomes of radiofrequency (RF) ablation, stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), and sublobar resection (SLR) in patients with stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) at a single center.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Overall, 289 patients (38 RF ablation, 58 SBRT, and 193 SLR) were included. Kaplan-Meier curves were generated, multiple propensity score was estimated using a multinomial logistic regression model, and relationships between treatments and outcomes were assessed using a Cox proportional hazard model. Hazard ratios (HRs) for death from any cause and disease progression or death from any cause were examined by a crude model, an inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) model, and an IPTW model adjusted for missing variables.
RESULTS: The 5-year overall and progression-free survival rates were 58.9% and 39.9%, respectively, for RF ablation; 42.0% and 34.9%, respectively, for SBRT; and 85.5% and 75.9%, respectively, for SLR. Significantly longer survival time and lower HR were observed for SLR than other treatments. However, after statistical adjustment, these relationships were not significant except for reduced HR of disease progression or death from any cause of SLR compared to RF ablation in the IPTW model. The median hospital stays for RF ablation, SBRT, and SLR were 6.5, 6, and 16 days, respectively. Adverse events of grade 3 or higher occurred only in 11 SLR cases.
CONCLUSIONS: SLR achieved the longest survival. However, after statistical adjustment, there were no significant outcome differences among RFA, SBRT, and SLR, except for 1 model. RF ablation or SBRT may be alternative treatments for selected patients with early-stage NSCLC.