Salehi M, et al. Med J Islam Repub Iran 2020.
Background: Lung cancer (LC) is a global public health priority. In this study, the epidemiology and current trends of primary LCs were investigated in northeast of Iran. Methods: Demographic and pathologic records of primary LCs during 1985-2012 in Mashhad (capital of northeast of Iran) were reviewed. Data were obtained from archives of the largest referral oncologic hospital and the only private outpatient radiation-oncologic clinic in the region. To investigate trends, study duration was classified into 3 periods: 1985-1995, 1995-2005, and 2005-2012. Patients were placed in one of these 3 groups, based on the date of their pathologic diagnosis. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 software. T test, chi-squared, and ANOVA tests were used for data analysis, and statistical significant level was set at < 0.05. Results: Among 939 cases with pathologic diagnosis of primary LC, male-to-female ratio was 2.36. Mean±SD age at diagnosis was 61.47±12.01 years in males and 58.45±12.75 in females (p=0.001). Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was the most frequent pathologic subtype. Mean age at diagnosis and rate of smokers were unchanged during the study (p= 0.978 and 0.153, respectively). Relative frequency of leading pathologic subtypes changed in 3 intervals (p<0.001): it was increasing in adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma and decreasing in SCC and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). There were statistically significant differences in the mean age at diagnosis (p<0.001), rate of smokers (p<0.001), and male-to-female ratio (p=0.011) between leading pathologic subtypes. Conclusion: Similar to universal picture, rate of adenocarcinoma in northeast of Iran was rising during recent decades, especially among younger patients, women, and nonsmokers. These trends are indicative of changes in exposures and smoking habits and reveal the need for regional studies in these contexts.