Tomita Y, et al. Cancer Immunol Res 2020.
Gut dysbiosis caused by antibiotics impairs response to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB). Gut microbiota is becoming an attractive therapeutic target for cancer. The Clostridium butyricum MIYAIRI 588 strain is a probiotic therapy used to improve symptoms related to antibiotic-induced dysbiosis in Japan. We hypothesized that probiotic Clostridium butyricum therapy (CBT) may affect the therapeutic efficacy of ICBs. We retrospectively evaluated 118 advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients
treated with ICBs at Kumamoto University Hospital. Survival analysis comparing patients given CBT before and/or after ICB was conducted using univariate analyses and Cox proportional hazards regression models using propensity score. Propensity score analyses confirmed that probiotic CBT treatment significatnly prolonged PFS and and OS. Probiotic CBT significantly associated with longer PFS and OS even in patients who received antibiotic therapy. This study suggests that probiotic CBT may have a positive impact on therapeutic efficacy of ICB in cancer patients.