Surg Today. 2020 Aug 17. doi: 10.1007/s00595-020-02101-8. Online ahead of print.
PURPOSE: The sampling and accurate diagnosis of lymph nodes during the clinical history of lung cancer are essential for selecting the appropriate treatment strategies. This study aims to evaluate the feasibility of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) in patients with previously treated lung cancer.
METHODS: Patients who underwent EBUS-TBNA after treatment for lung cancer were retrospectively reviewed. We classified the patients into two groups; Group 1 (G1): Indicated to have a recurrence of new lesions after radical surgery or chemo/radiotherapy with a curative intent; and Group 2 (G2): Indicated to have residual tumor cells after undergoing primary treatment for chemo/radiotherapy or re-staging after induction therapy prior to surgery.
RESULTS: Seventy previously treated lung cancer cases (G1, n = 52; G2, n = 18) were enrolled. Thirty-two cases (61.5%) had recurrent disease in G1, and 9 cases (50.0%) had nodal metastasis in G2. The diagnostic accuracy was 95.2% in G1 and 88.9% in G2. Twenty-four cases were examined for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, and 9 (37.5%) cases had mutations, including two cases with a T790M mutation. Furthermore, in one case, a re-biopsy revealed that the initial adenocarcinoma had transformed into small cell lung cancer.
CONCLUSION: Performing EBUS-TBNA during lung cancer treatment showed a high diagnostic yield. Samples obtained by EBUS-TBNA were helpful in determining when to perform repeat biomarker testing as well as for making pathological re-evaluations.