Mechanisms of resistance to immune checkpoint inhibitors and strategies to reverse drug resistance in lung cancer

Lung Cancer

Chin Med J (Engl). 2020 Sep 22. doi: 10.1097/CM9.0000000000001124. Online ahead of print.


In recent years, the research of immune checkpoint inhibitors has made a great breakthrough in lung cancer treatment. Currently, a variety of immune checkpoint inhibitors have been applied into clinical practice, including antibodies targeting the programmed cell death-1, programmed cell death-ligand 1, and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4, and so on. However, not all patients can benefit from the treatment. Abnormal antigen presentation, functional gene mutation, tumor microenvironment, and

other factors can lead to primary or secondary resistance. In this paper, we reviewed the molecular mechanism of immune checkpoint inhibitor resistance and various combination strategies to overcome resistance, in order to expand the beneficial population and enable precision medicine.