Predicting the Risk of Disease Recurrence and Death Following Curative-intent Radiotherapy for Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: The Development and Validation of Two Scoring Systems From a Large Multicentre UK Cohort

Lung Cancer

Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 2020 Sep 22:S0936-6555(20)30362-9. doi: 10.1016/j.clon.2020.09.001. Online ahead of print.


AIMS: There is a paucity of evidence on which to produce recommendations on neither the clinical nor the imaging follow-up of lung cancer patients after curative-intent radiotherapy. In the 2019 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence lung cancer guidelines, further research into risk-stratification models to inform follow-up protocols was recommended.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of consecutive patients undergoing curative-intent radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer from 1 October 2014 to 1 October 2016 across nine UK trusts was carried out. Twenty-two demographic, clinical and treatment-related variables were collected and multivariable logistic regression was used to develop and validate two risk-stratification models to determine the risk of disease recurrence and death.

RESULTS: In total, 898 patients were included in the study. The mean age was 72 years, 63% (562/898) had a good performance status (0-1) and 43% (388/898), 15% (134/898) and 42% (376/898) were clinical stage I, II and III, respectively. Thirty-six per cent (322/898) suffered disease recurrence and 41% (369/898) died in the first 2 years after radiotherapy. The ASSENT score (age, performance status, smoking status, staging endobronchial ultrasound, N-stage, T-stage) was developed, which stratifies the risk for disease recurrence within 2 years, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) for the total score of 0.712 (0.671-0.753) and 0.72 (0.65-0.789) in the derivation and validation sets, respectively. The STEPS score (sex, performance status, staging endobronchial ultrasound, T-stage, N-stage) was developed, which stratifies the risk of death within 2 years, with an AUROC for the total score of 0.625 (0.581-0.669) and 0.607 (0.53-0.684) in the derivation and validation sets, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: These validated risk-stratification models could be used to inform follow-up protocols after curative-intent radiotherapy for lung cancer. The modest performance highlights the need for more advanced risk prediction tools.