Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2020 Jan-Dec;19:1533033820947485. doi: 10.1177/1533033820947485.
Radiotherapy has been reported to cause cancer metastasis. Thus, a new strategy for radiotherapy must be developed to avoid this side effect. A549 cells were exposed to radiation to induce an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) cell model. Real-time PCR and western blotting were used to detect mRNA and protein expression levels, and Transwell invasion and wound healing assays were used to detect cell migration and invasion. ELISA was used to detect soluble E-cadherin (sE-cad) secretion.
siRNA was used to silence MMP9 expression. The results show that A549R cells exhibited an EMT phenotype with increased E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Snail, Slug, vimentin and Twist expression and decreased pan-keratin expression. sE-cad levels were increased in A549R cells and in the serum of NSCLC patients with distant metastasis. Exogenous sE-cad treatment and sE-cad overexpression promoted A549R and A549 cell migration and invasion. In contrast, blocking sE-cad attenuated A549 cell migration and invasion. Curcumin inhibited sE-cad expression and reversed EMT induced by radiation. Furthermore, curcumin suppressed sE-cad-enhanced A549 and A549R cell migration and invasion. Curcumin inhibited MMP9 expression, and silencing MMP9 suppressed sE-cad expression. Taken together, we found a nonclassic EMT phenomenon induced by radiation. Curcumin inhibits NSCLC migration and invasion by suppressing radiation-induced EMT and sE-cad expression by decreasing MMP9 expression.