J Comp Eff Res. 2020 Nov 3. doi: 10.2217/cer-2020-0134. Online ahead of print.
Aim: To estimate the comparative effectiveness of nivolumab versus standard of care (SOC) in terms of overall survival (OS) for small-cell lung cancer patients treated with two prior lines of chemotherapy, in other words, third line in the USA. Materials & methods: Data were from CheckMate 032, a single-arm trial of nivolumab, and real-world electronic patient records. Comparisons of OS were conducted using three different methods to adjust for differences (regression, weighting and doubly robust) between the populations. Results: Nivolumab was associated with longer survival compared with SOC (hazard ratio for OS: 0.58-0.70) across all methods for adjustment. Conclusion: Nivolumab was more efficacious in terms of OS as third-line treatment for small-cell lung cancer compared with current SOC in the USA.