A tularemia mimicking lymphoma


Chevalier K, et al. Rev Med Interne 2020.


INTRODUCTION: Adenopathies are a frequent cause of recourse in internal medicine. When histological analysis reveals the presence of granuloma, multiple infectious or non-infectious etiologies are considered. If diagnoses of lymphoma, sarcoidosis or tuberculosis are easily mentioned, tularemia should also be considered in the differential diagnosis.

OBSERVATION: A 54-year-old patient had a fever at the evening with night sweats and a cough resistant to two lines of antibiotics. A thoraco-abdomino-pelvic CT scan revealed hilar and mediastinal adenopathies that appeared hypermetabolic with PET-TDM, as well as pulmonary nodules. A PCR performed on lymph node biopsy and serology allowed the diagnosis of tularemia. The evolution was favourable after antibiotic treatment.

CONCLUSION: The association of fever, night sweats, altered general state and mediastinal adenopathies should be considered as a diagnosis of tularemia. Ganglionic biopsy, combined with molecular biology techniques and serology, can confirm the diagnosis.