Sakamoto H, et al. Rinsho Ketsueki 2020.
Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1) infection and adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) have been shown to cause immunodeficiency. However, only a few cases have been reported on the development of Epstein-Barr virus positive-diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (EBV-DLBCL) in HTLV-1 carriers or in patients with ATL. Here we report a case of a female HTLV-1 carrier who developed cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis. During the CMV retinitis treatment, she developed a liver tumor. The diagnosis of
composite ATL and EBV-DLBCL was made by tumor biopsy. The patient also suffered from pulmonary cryptococcosis and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis at the time of chemotherapy initiation. She had repeated CMV antigenemia and bacterial sepsis during the course of chemotherapy, and she died of bacterial sepsis. HTLV-1 carriers who are complicated with opportunistic infections should be carefully observed not only for ATL development but also for the development of EBV-DLBCL and associated infectious complications.