Apparent diffusion coefficient as a valuable quantitative parameter for predicting clinical outcomes in patients with newly diagnosed primary CNS lymphoma

Lymphoma
15/05/2020

Baek DW, et al. Blood Res 2020.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study attempted to identify novel prognostic factors in patients with newly diagnosed primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 67 patients diagnosed with central nervous system (CNS) tumors. The enrollment criteria were as follows: i) pathologic diagnosis of CNS lymphoma, ii) no evidence of systemic involvement, iii) no evidence of human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection or other immunodeficiencies, and iv) MRI scans available at diagnosis. Fifty-two patients met these criteria and were enrolled.

RESULTS: The 3-year overall survival (OS) and failure-free survival rates were 69.7% and 45.6%, respectively, with a median follow-up duration of 36.2 months. OS of patients with low apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was lower than those with higher ADC. Multivariate analysis revealed that old age (>60 yr) [hazard ratio (HR), 20.372; P=0.001], Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) ≥2 (HR, 10.429; P<0.001), higher lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels (HR, 7.408; P=0.001), and low ADC (HR, 0.273; P=0.009) were associated with lower OS. We modified the conventional prognostic scoring system using low ADC, old age (>60 yr), ECOG PS ≥2, and higher LDH. The risk of death was categorized as high (score 3-4), intermediate-2 (score 2), intermediate-1 (score 1), and low (score 0), with three-year OS rates of 33.5%, 55.4%, 88.9%, and 100%, respectively.

CONCLUSION: ADC demonstrated significant prognostic value for long-term survival in patients with newly diagnosed PCNSL. Low ADC was an independent unfavorable prognostic factor, suggesting that ADC obtained from MRI can improve the current prognostic scoring system.