Kim HO, et al. Medicine (Baltimore) 2020.
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) typically shows a strong uptake of F-fludeoxyglucose (FDG) imaged by positron emission tomography (PET). Uncommonly, PCNSL demonstrates a low uptake on FDG PET. We investigated the clinicopathological characteristics of the unusual cases of PCNSL with low FDG uptake.We retrospectively enrolled 104 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed PCNSL who underwent baseline brain FDG PET. The degree of FDG uptake of PCNSL was visually scored by 4 grades
(0, ≤contralateral white matter; 1, >contralateral white matter and <contralateral gray matter; 2, = contralateral gray matter; 3, >contralateral gray matter). Grades 0-2 were considered as PCNSL with low uptake. We investigated association of low uptake of PCNSL with the following clinicopathological factors: age, sex, steroid treatment, lactate dehydrogenase level, cerebrospinal fluid protein level, condition of PET scanning, immunohistochemical markers (cluster of differentiation 10 [CD10], B-cell lymphoma 6 [BCL-6], B-cell lymphoma 2 [BCL-2], multiple myeloma oncogene 1 [MUM1], Epstein-Barr virus [EBV] protein, and Ki67), location of lesions, tumor size, multiplicity of lesions, involvement of deep brain structures, and cystic or necrotic appearance of lesions.Of the 104 patients with PCNSL, 14 patients (13.5%) showed PCNSL with low FDG uptake on PET. Among various clinicopathological factors, MUM1 negativity was the only factor associated with low FDG uptake PCNSL by univariate (P = .002) and multivariate analysis (P = .007).This study suggests that the different clinicopathological characteristics between patients with high uptake and low uptake of PCNSL on FDG PET is closely associated with lack of MUM1, a protein known to be a crucial regulator of B-cell development and tumorigenesis.