Consecutive single-institution case series of primary central nervous system lymphoma treated by R-MPV or high-dose methotrexate monotherapy

Lymphoma
29/05/2020

Sasaki N, et al. Jpn J Clin Oncol 2020.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The optimal regimen for use of high dose-methotrexate-based chemotherapy in primary central nervous system lymphoma is still under debate. We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the treatment outcome of a combination immunochemotherapy consisting of rituximab, methotrexate, procarbazine and vincristine followed by with or without whole brain radiotherapy and consolidation cytarabine, in comparison with high dose-methotrexate monotherapy followed by full dose whole brain radiotherapy.

METHODS: Newly diagnosed primary central nervous system lymphoma patients treated with either rituximab, methotrexate, procarbazine and vincristine or high dose-methotrexate in Kyorin University Hospital were identified, and the response rates and survival were compared. Toxicities, post-treatment transition of Mini-Mental State Examination, Karnofsky performance status score, Fazekas scale and prognostic factors were analysed in the rituximab, methotrexate, procarbazine and vincristine group.

RESULTS: Ninety-five patients treated with rituximab, methotrexate, procarbazine and vincristine (n = 39) or high dose-methotrexate (n = 56) were analysed. The complete response/complete response unconfirmed rate was significantly higher in the rituximab, methotrexate, procarbazine and vincristine group (74.4 vs. 15.4%, P < 0.001). Accordingly, both median progression-free survival and overall survival were significantly longer in the rituximab, methotrexate, procarbazine and vincristine group (median progression-free survival: unreached vs. 14.75 months, P < 0.001) (median overall survival: unreached vs. 63.15 months, P = 0.005). Although the rate of grade 3/4 hematologic toxicities was high both during rituximab, methotrexate, procarbazine and vincristine and consolidation cytarabine, the rate of grade 3/4 infections was low, and no treatment related deaths were observed. Deterioration in Karnofsky performance status or Mini-Mental State Examination was rare, except on disease recurrence. Although whole brain radiotherapy was associated with Fazekas scale deterioration, its association with Karnofsky performance status or Mini-Mental State Examination deterioration was not significant.

CONCLUSIONS: Rituximab, methotrexate, procarbazine and vincristine was apparently promising in comparison with high dose-methotrexate monotherapy with manageable toxicity in this retrospective study, and further investigation is warranted.