Ghosh N, et al. JAMA Oncol 2020.
IMPORTANCE: Reduced-intensity conditioning and nonmyeloablative conditioning (RIC-NMAC) regimens are frequently used in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. However, the optimal RIC-NMAC regimen in allogeneic HCT for non-Hodgkin lymphoma is not known.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether RIC-NMAC regimens at a higher end of the intensity spectrum are associated with increased nonrelapse mortality and lower overall survival compared with RIC-NMAC regimens at the lower end of the intensity spectrum in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma undergoing allogeneic HCT.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This cohort study used data from 1823 adult patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research registry. Included patients underwent allogeneic HCT using matched related or unrelated donors between January 2008 and December 2016. Statistical analysis was performed from June 1, 2019, to February 10, 2020.
INTERVENTIONS: Patients received 1 of 4 RIC-NMAC regimens: fludarabine-intravenous busulfan (Flu-Bu), approximately 6.4 mg/kg (n = 458); fludarabine-melphalan (Flu-Mel140), 140 mg/m2 (n = 885); fludarabine-cyclophosphamide (Flu-Cy) (n = 391); or Flu-Cy with 2 Gy total body irradiation (Flu-Cy-2GyTBI) (n = 89).
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was overall survival. Secondary outcomes were nonrelapse mortality, incidence of relapse, progression-free survival, and the incidence of acute and chronic graft-vs-host disease (GVHD).
RESULTS: Of 1823 patients, 1186 (65%) were male, with a mean (SD) age of 54.8 (9.9) years. The 4-year adjusted OS was 58% in the Flu-Bu cohort, 67% in the Flu-Cy-2GyTBI cohort, 49% in the Flu-Mel140 cohort, and 63% in the Flu-Cy cohort (P < .001). After adjustment for age, Karnofsky performance score, HCT comorbidity index, NHL subtype, remission status at HCT, and the use of antithymocyte globulin or alemtuzumab, the regression analysis showed a significantly higher mortality risk associated with Flu-Mel140 compared with Flu-Bu (hazard ratio [HR], 1.34; 95% CI, 1.13-1.59; P < .001). Compared with the Flu-Cy cohort, the Flu-Mel140 cohort had a higher risk of chronic GVHD (HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.15-1.65; P < .001). The Flu-Mel140 regimen was associated with a higher nonrelapse mortality risk (HR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.37-2.31; P < .001) compared with the Flu-Bu regimen.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The findings suggest that use of the more intense RIC-NMAC regimen, Flu-Mel140, may have a negative association with overall survival and may be associated with higher nonrelapse mortality. The Flu-Bu and Flu-Cy regimens with or without 2GyTBI regimens appeared to provide comparable overall survival.