Bilateral breast implant associated chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL): A case report

Lymphoma
05/06/2020

Bletsis PP, et al. Int J Surg Case Rep 2020.

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: An estimated 30.000 breast implants are placed in the Netherlands annually. An increasing amount of reports have linked implants to the rare anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). Other implant-related lymphomas, such as those of B-cell lineage, are much rarer.

PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 62-year-old female presented with pain and Baker grade III capsular contraction of the right breast. Subpectorally placed textured anatomical implants had been in situ for 26 years after cosmetic augmentation. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) showed bilateral implant leakage. Explantation of both implants confirmed bilateral leakage after which symptoms went into remission. Three months later our patient noticed an erythematous area, scar swelling and serous fluid leakage on the lateral side of the inframammary fold of the right breast. Siliconomas were excised bilaterally together with a partial capsulectomy on the left. Histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis showed monotonous small cell B-lymphocytic infiltration (CD20+, CD5+, CD23+, ALK-) in both capsules, highly suggestive for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)/small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL).

DISCUSSION: CLL/SLL are classified as nearly the same disease. The primary difference is the localization; CLL is found the bone marrow and blood whereas SLL is predominantly in the lymph nodes and spleen. There are no previous descriptions of bilateral CLL/SLL found in periprosthetic capsules.

CONCLUSION: Breast implants are increasingly linked to various malignancies. In most cases, including our patient, implant explantation together with long-term follow-up suffices. MRI yields additional value in early stage diagnosis. More research is required to further optimize multidisciplinary care and improve patient outcomes.