Brentuximab vedotin for refractory anaplastic lymphoma kinase-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma in leukemic phase with RUNX3 overexpression


Yamashita Y, et al. Hematol Rep 2020.


Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)- negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is an aggressive CD30-positive non- Hodgkin lymphoma. ALK-ALCL rarely manifests with extensive bone marrow and peripheral blood involvement (known as "leukemic phase"). A 54-year-old woman was diagnosed with ALK-ALCL in leukemic phase, characterized by an extremely poor prognosis. Lymphoma cells in this case showed chromosomal translocation 1p36.1- encoded RUNX3 and overexpression of its protein. She was refractory

to CHOP and salvage chemotherapy. Fortunately, she achieved complete remission with three cycles of Brentuximab vedotin (BV) and underwent umbilical cord blood transplantation. However, she died due to treatment-related mortality on day 129. The autopsy findings showed no lymphoma cells. Treatment strategy for ALK-ALCL is controversial, but the efficacy of BV in CD30-positive peripheral T-cell lymphoma not only as salvage regimens, but also in first line, has been reported in recent years. BV may be an effective option for ALK-ALCL in leukemic phase.