Successful treatment of Aspergillus mural endocarditis in malignant lymphoma using a combined antifungal and surgical approach: a case report


Hiroshima Y, et al. Surg Case Rep 2020.


BACKGROUND: Aspergillus endocarditis (AE) is a rare and lethal cardiac infection with a high rate of mortality. AE most commonly presents in immunocompromised patients and is associated with various co-morbidities. Herein, we present a case of AE associated with lung, brain, and cervical abscesses after chemotherapy for malignant lymphoma that was successfully treated by a combination of antifungal and surgical therapy.

CASE PRESENTATION: A 29-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with an unidentified fever. He was diagnosed with malignant lymphoma (extra-nodal NK/T cell lymphoma nasal type), and chemotherapy was administered. After chemotherapy, nodular lung shadows along with new brain, cervical, and myocardial abscesses appeared, despite anti-bacterial/fungal therapy. Gene analysis of the cervical abscess biopsy revealed the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus species, and the transesophageal echocardiogram showed a mobile mural vegetation in the left ventricle (22 × 8 mm). He underwent surgical resection of this mural vegetation. His postoperative course was uneventful. He remains healthy at 28 months after surgery with continued oral antifungal therapy.

CONCLUSION: Although AE associated with immunosuppression is a fatal clinical presentation, combined treatment with surgical resection and antifungal therapy was effective.