Nagayama T, et al. Ann Hematol 2020.
The amount of infused CD34+ cells has been reported to be the strongest predictor of platelet recovery after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). However, the timing of platelet recovery varies widely among patients even after the infusion of similar amounts of CD34+ cells. Therefore, we retrospectively assessed 99 patients who underwent their first ASCT for lymphoma or myeloma at our center. Thirteen patients (13%) did not achieve platelet engraftment, defined as a platelet count of at least 2.0 × 104/μL without transfusion, at day 28 after transplantation, whereas 58 of 60 patients (97%) who received at least 2.0 × 106/kg CD34+ cells achieved platelet engraftment within 28 days. Multivariate analysis identified the following significant risk factors for delayed platelet recovery: hemoglobin level and platelet count before stem cell harvest, body temperature of > 39 °C within 5 days after ASCT, and infusion of a small amount (< 2.0 × 106/kg) of CD34+ cells. In a subgroup analysis of 39 patients infused with < 2.0 × 106/kg CD34+ cells, a need for repeated apheresis for stem cell harvest and a body temperature of > 39 °C within 5 days after ASCT were identified as independent factors for delayed platelet recovery. In summary, platelet recovery following ASCT was affected by insufficient hematopoietic recovery at stem cell harvest, a need for repeated apheresis, and high fever early after ASCT, particularly when the amount of infused stem cells was insufficient.