Sang W, et al. Cancer Med 2020.
PURPOSE: Anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy has demonstrated remarkable efficacy for refractory and relapsed diffuse large B cell lymphoma (R/R DLBCL). However, this therapy failed in nearly 25% patients mainly due to antigen loss. The authors performed a phase Ⅱ trial by coadministration of anti-CD19 and anti-CD20 CAR-T cells treatment for R/R DLBCL and evaluated its efficacy and toxicity.
METHODS: Totally 21 patients with DLBCL were enrolled in this study. The patients were conditioned with fludarabine and cyclophosphamide before the infusion of anti-CD19 and anti-CD20 CAR-T cells. Treatment response, toxicity, and persistence were monitored continuously.
RESULTS: Of the 21 patients received the treatment, the objective response rate (ORR) is 81.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 58.1%-94.6%) with four cases of bulk (4/5) and one case of testis involvement; 52.4% (95% CI, 29.8%-74.3%) had a complete response (CR). Peak levels of anti-CD19 and anti-CD20 CAR cells were associated with response (P = .007 and .002). Grade 3-4 cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and neurologic events occurred in 28.5% and 9.5% patients, respectively. Median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 8.1 and 5.0 months, respectively. The maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax) of CD4/CD8 ratio before and after infusion were associated with responses, and the total lesion glycolysis (TLG) before infusion correlates with cytokines level.
CONCLUSIONS: Coadministration of anti-CD19 and CD20 CAR-T cells therapy for DLBCL is feasible with manageable toxicity. Cytokine markers are related to toxicity and SUVmax could predict efficacy. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03207178.