Samoa RA, et al. Diabetes Care 2020.
OBJECTIVE: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) perturb T-cell regulatory pathways to enhance antitumor immunity. However, an increase reporting of ICI-associated diabetes is observed in adults. To our knowledge, no cases have been reported in the pediatric population.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We describe a pediatric case of ICI-associated type 1 diabetes in a 12-year old Hispanic boy with Hodgkin lymphoma. The patient had a history of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and was treated with pembrolizumab after disease progression.
RESULTS: The patient was admitted for diabetic ketoacidosis after five cycles of pembrolizumab and was discharged with daily insulin injections and continues on exogenous insulin ever since.
CONCLUSIONS: The expanded ICI use may lead to more cases in pediatric patients as has been observed in adults. Considering the acute manifestation of diabetes and the added burden of lifelong insulin therapy, in particular for pediatric patients and their families, monitoring and education of ICI-associated diabetes in children is needed.