Neoplasma. 2020 Jul 24:200303N224. doi: 10.4149/neo_2020_200303N224. Online ahead of print.
High-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) remains a valuable therapeutic approach for relapsed and refractory (R/R) patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety and clinical outcome of ASCT for R/R DLBCL. We present a retrospective series of ASCT for 53 DLBCL patients (30 males and 23 females) at the median age of 51 years. Patients were eligible for transplantation if they achieved
partial, second, or subsequent response or remained stable to at least 2 prior treatments. Median overall (OS) and progression-free (PFS) survivals were 9 and 6.3 years, respectively. The estimated 4-year OS and PFS were found to be 75% and 69%, respectively. In univariate analysis liver involvement, clinical stage at diagnosis, lymphocyte/monocyte count, and status of clinical response at ASCT were found to influence OS, however only absolute lymphocyte count remained significant in multivariate analysis (HR 1.42 [95% CI: 1.08-1.87]; p = 0.01). Median follow-up from ASCT to the last contact was 4.4 years (range 0.03-18.7). In total, 26 patients died from disease progression and subsequent resistance to chemotherapy. At the last contact, 27 patients were alive in remission. Only a single patient died shortly after ASCT due to infectious complications. Grade 3 or 4 non-hematological side effects were not observed in the remaining patients. ASCT for RR DLBCL is a safe procedure with a high probability of overall and progression-free survival.