Polyostotic Fibrous Dysplasia Mimicking Bone Involvement in Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Pediatric Case and Literature Review


Acta Haematol. 2020 Jul 24:1-5. doi: 10.1159/000508261. Online ahead of print.


Bone involvement in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is rare. The differential diagnosis between HL bone localization and other malignant or benign skeletal diseases is challenging. We report the case of a girl affected by classic HL, initially staged IVA because of supradiaphragmatic lymph nodes and skeletal involvement. After 6 ABVD (adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine) cycles, positron emission tomography (PET) showed a complete metabolic response of the nodal localizations and a persistent,

high metabolic activity of bone lesions. Salvage treatment followed by autologous stem cell transplant was carried out. After the transplant, the bone lesions maintained a high metabolic activity at PET. A targeted bone biopsy led to the diagnosis of a fibrous dysplasia excluding the presence of HL. To our knowledge, the concomitant presence of HL and fibrous dysplasia has not been previously reported. An in-depth evaluation of disease response to frontline treatment with a biopsy of the PET-hypercaptant bone lesions could have avoided overtreatment in this patient.