Prophylactic antibiotic treatment with TMP-SMX decreased the incidence of interstitial pneumonia in patients with B-cell lymphoma on chemotherapy


BMC Cancer. 2020 Aug 8;20(1):742. doi: 10.1186/s12885-020-07254-w.


BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported the incidence of interstitial pneumonia (IP) among patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) that are undergoing combination chemotherapy plus rituximab; however, the effective prophylactic treatment for IP remains unclear. This study aims to explore the prophylactic effect of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) on IP and identify IP-associated risk factors in NHL patients.

METHODS: Between March 2013 and April 2018, 498 patients (264 males, 53%) with B-cell NHL undergoing first-line RCHOP-like chemotherapy treatment with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone were enrolled in this study.

RESULTS: These patients had a median age of 56 years, and 311 of the 498 patients (62.4%) were administered once daily with the prophylactic treatment of TMP-SMX. IP occurred in 65 patients (13.1%), indicating a significant reduction in the IP incidence rate (21.4% vs. 8.0%; p < 0.001). Among patients treated with TMP-SMX, 2 (1.2%) exhibited rashes, 38 (12.2%) suffered from nausea and vomiting, 52 (16.7%) showed signs of neutropenia, and 18 (5.8%) suffered from kidney dysfunction. Both univariate and multivariate analysis showed that gender (male), history of diabetes, and absence of prophylactic TMP-SMX treatment were significant risk factors associated with IP. Disease progression was observed in 55/311 (17.7%) patients that underwent prophylactic TMP-SMX treatment and in 63/187 (33.7%) patients that did not (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that the occurrence of IP was common in B-cell NHL patients undergoing combined chemotherapy plus rituximab treatment. IP could be reduced with prophylactic treatment of once-daily oral TMP-SMX.