Int J Hematol. 2020 Aug 12. doi: 10.1007/s12185-020-02970-2. Online ahead of print.
Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) syndrome is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by benign skin hamartomas, pulmonary cysts leading to spontaneous pneumothorax, and an increased risk of renal cancer. BHD syndrome is caused by germline mutations in the folliculin (FLCN) gene, a putative tumor suppressor, which result in loss of function of the folliculin protein and may cause cancer predisposition. In a 45-year-old woman with anemia, lymphadenopathy, and a history of recurrent spontaneous
pneumothorax, 18F-FDG PET/CT detected diffuse and slight 18F-FDG accumulation in the bone marrow, enlarged spleen, and systemic multiple enlarged lymph nodes. Genetic examination identified a germline nonsense mutation [c.998C > G (p.Ser333*)] on exon 9 of FLCN. Pathological examination of the lymph node revealed a diffuse neoplastic proliferation of plasmacytoid lymphocytes. The neoplastic lymphoid cells were positive for CD20, CD138, and light chain kappa as per immunohistochemistry and mRNA in situ hybridization, and a MYD88 gene mutation [c.755T > C (p.L252P)] was identified. Accordingly, she was diagnosed with lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma concomitant with BHD syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the development of hematological malignancy in a patient with BHD syndrome. The FLCN mutation might contribute lymphomagenesis as an additional mutation cooperating with the MYD88 mutation.