Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2020 Aug 20:S1083-8791(20)30509-7. doi: 10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.08.017. Online ahead of print.
For patients with relapsed or refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL), salvage chemotherapy followed by consolidation with autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) remains the standard of care. Even with this aggressive treatment strategy, 5-year progression-free survival is ≤ 50%, and there remains interest in maintenance strategies to improve long-term disease-free survival. Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory agent with demonstrated activity in multiple subtypes of lymphoma including cHL,
and has also been shown to improve both progression free and overall survival as maintenance therapy after ASCT in multiple myeloma. This multicenter study evaluated maintenance lenalidomide after ASCT for patients with cHL. Patients were enrolled 60-90 days post-transplant and received oral lenalidomide on days 1-28 of 28-day cycles for a maximum of 18 cycles. Lenalidomide was started at 15 mg daily and increased to maximum of 25 mg daily if tolerated. The primary objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of this regimen, with a goal < 30% rate of discontinuation at or before cycle 12 for drug-related reasons. Twenty-seven patients were enrolled and 26 received at least one dose of lenalidomide. With a median follow-up of 51.3 months (range 12.2 - 76.2 months), 23 of 26 patients were alive. Median event-free survival was 9.4 months and median progression free survival had not been reached, with 17 of 26 patients (65.4%) remaining in remission at last follow-up. Excluding four patients who discontinued therapy for progression and two who discontinued due to non-compliance, the discontinuation rate at or before cycle 12 was 52%. Treatment was complicated by a high frequency of hematologic adverse events, with 15 patients (58%) experiencing grade 3-4 hematologic toxicity and 5 (19%) experiencing grade 4 hematologic toxicity. We conclude that the regimen of maintenance lenalidomide explored in this study is not feasible for cHL patients immediately following ASCT. An alternative lenalidomide dose or schedule may be better tolerated following ASCT for patients with rel/ref cHL.