Intractable Rare Dis Res. 2020 Aug;9(3):163-165. doi: 10.5582/irdr.2020.03003.
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare malignant tumor of the central nervous system. It is associated with poor prognosis. Early diagnosis and subsequent planning of adequate treatment strategy are relevant to improve survival and reduce neurological deficit. Specifically, there are no reports of successful endoscopic biopsy for PCNSL of the corpus callosum in the splenium with bilateral visuomotor ataxia. An 74-year-old woman presented to our hospital with anorexia,
depression and ataxia beginning six months earlier. Head computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed malignant tumor suspected in the corpus callosum. Endoscopic biopsy was performed via the low parieatal approach, suspecting GBM or PCNSL. She had no new postoperative neurological deficits and was pathologically diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). She is currently undergoing radiation chemotherapy with a modified Rankin Scale score of 2. Regarding preoperative symptoms, ataxia was considered to be bilateral visuomotor ataxia caused by damage to the corpus callosum in the splenium, and anorexia and depression were considered symptoms of the surrounding limbic system. Delay in the diagnosis of PCNSL can lead to a poor prognosis. Visuomotor ataxia should also consider the potential for the corpus callosum in the splenium lesion, including PCNSL, and appropriate imaging and pathological diagnosis with endoscopic biopsy can contribute to a good clinical outcome.