Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma accompanied by pure red cell aplasia: A case report


World J Clin Oncol. 2020 Jun 24;11(6):405-411. doi: 10.5306/wjco.v11.i6.405.


BACKGROUND: Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is a peripheral T-cell lymphoma, which is a rare subtype of lymphoma. Patients with AITL often have skin lesions, which are observed in 50% of all cases; the chief complaint of this patient was palpable purpura. AITL often complicates autoimmune or hematological disorders; however, among these, pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is a very rare complication of AITL. We herein report a case of AITL with PRCA.

CASE SUMMARY: A 77-year-old Japanese man presented to our hospital with complaints of loss of appetite for 2 mo and a 10-d history of palpable purpura. On physical examination, the patient was afebrile but had bilateral multiple palpable purpuric lesions over the lower extremities, lower abdomen, and part of the upper extremities. Moreover, lymphadenopathy of the bilateral inguinal, cervical, and supraclavicular nodes was noted. Laboratory and imaging studies and skin biopsy were conducted but were inconclusive. Based on inguinal lymph node excisional biopsy, we diagnosed the patient with AITL. Subsequently, the patient developed progressive normocytic normochromic anemia that necessitated almost daily blood transfusion. The clinical presentations and results of bone marrow assessment were consistent with those of PRCA, which is associated with AITL. Chemotherapy was initiated but was not effective. The patient refused further chemotherapy and opted to continue receiving best supportive care.

CONCLUSION: PRCA is an extremely rare complication of AITL. As the pathophysiology remains unclear, further research is warranted.