Intravascular lymphoma with hypopituitarism: A case report


World J Clin Oncol. 2020 Aug 24;11(8):673-678. doi: 10.5306/wjco.v11.i8.673.


BACKGROUND: Intravascular lymphoma (IVL) is a rare subtype of lymphoma involving the growth of lymphoma cells within the vessel lumina without lymphadenopathy. Because of various modes of presentation and its rarity, IVL is often diagnosed postmortem. Herein, we report a case of intravascular B-cell lymphoma with hypopituitarism, an extremely rare complication, that was successfully treated with chemotherapy.

CASE SUMMARY: An 80-year-old Japanese woman presented with a 7-mo history of a tingling sensation in the lower limbs. She also presented with various other symptoms such as pancytopenia, high fever daily, and unconsciousness with hypoglycemia. Although the doctor who previously treated her diagnosed hypoglycemia as being due to hypopituitarism, the cause of the other symptoms remained uncertain despite a 7-mo evaluation period. We performed bone marrow aspiration to evaluate pancytopenia and found that she had hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). On the basis of a random skin biopsy for assessing the cause of HLH, she was diagnosed with intravascular B-cell lymphoma. HLH and hypopituitarism were considered secondary to IVL. All her clinical findings matched the presentations of IVL. She was immediately treated with chemotherapy and achieved complete response. She was relapse free two years after treatment.

CONCLUSION: IVL should be included in the differential diagnosis of hypopituitarism, which although life-threatening, is treatable through prompt diagnosis and appropriate chemotherapy.