Rinsho Ketsueki. 2020;61(8):901-911. doi: 10.11406/rinketsu.61.901.
Almost 20 years have passed after rituximab, an anti-CD20 mouse-human chimeric monoclonal antibody therapeutic, was introduced in the clinical setting for the treatment of CD20-positive B cell malignancies. Although the prognosis has significantly improved in most B cell malignancies, resistance to rituximab with/without chemotherapies is also widely recognized. With this background, newer generation antibody therapeutics and other molecular targeting drugs that show more effectiveness
especially to refractory patients are critically required. In this review, molecular mechanisms of the second/third generation anti-CD20 antibodies (ofatumumab and obinutuzumab), anti-CD19 chimeric antigen-receptor T-cells (CAR-T-CD19; tisagenlecleucel, axicabtagene ciloleucel), and the anti-PD-1 antibodies (nivolumab and pembrolizumab) are presented. The therapeutic effectiveness of those drugs as monotherapy and/or combined therapy with conventional chemotherapy (immunochemotherapy) and another molecular targeting therapeutics (so-called "chemo-free" regimens) are also reviewed.