Multidisciplinary Diagnostic Approach in Intraocular Lymphoma Featuring Pseudo-hypopyon: Case Series and Literature Review

Lymphoma
24/09/2020

Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2020 Sep 23:1-6. doi: 10.1080/09273948.2020.1815796. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Diagnosis of intraocular lymphoma (IOL) is usually achieved by histopathological analysis. However, it may lead to inconclusive results due to the scarcity of malignant cells obtained by biopsy, hence leading to delayed diagnosis. We report two cases of IOL with pseudo-hypopyon, a rare feature of IOL, as their initial ocular feature, diagnosed using a multidisciplinary diagnostic approach. Common clinical features of IOL with pseudo-hypopyon were also investigated.

METHODS: Retrospective case series and literature review.

RESULTS: Two cases of IOL, a 78-year-old female and a 59-year-old male, whom had been diagnosed with systemic B-cell lymphoma developed pseudo-hypopyon and visual impairment during the course of their chemotherapy. Diagnosis of IOL was achieved from anterior chamber aspiration samples with supplementary diagnostic tools including flow cytometric immunophenotyping, interleukin and IgH gene rearrangement analysis in addition to the conventional histopathological analysis. Generally, pseudo-hypopyon was more commonly seen in secondary IOL and may associate with hyphema and high intraocular pressure.

CONCLUSION: Pseudo-hypopyon is a rare feature of IOL, more commonly seen in secondary IOL, which can be accompanied by hyphema and high intraocular pressure. Supplementary diagnostic tools such as flow cytometric immunophenotyping, interleukin analysis, and immunogloblin H gene rearrangement analysis are useful for supporting the diagnosis of IOL with pseudo-hypopyon.