Bioact Mater. 2020 Sep 22;6(3):697-711. doi: 10.1016/j.bioactmat.2020.09.002. eCollection 2021 Mar.
In recent years, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) has been one of the most fast-growing malignant tumor diseases. NHL poses severe damages to physical health and a heavy burden to patients. Traditional therapies (chemotherapy or radiotherapy) bring some benefit to patients, but have severe adverse effects and do not prevent relapse. The relevance of emerging immunotherapy options (immune-checkpoint blockers or adoptive cellular methods) for NHL remains uncertain, and more intensive evaluations are
needed. In this work, inspired by the idea of vaccination to promote an immune response to destroy tumors, we used a biomaterial-based strategy to improve a tumor cell-based vaccine and constructed a novel vaccine named Man-EG7/CH@CpG with antitumor properties. In this vaccine, natural tumor cells are used as a vector to load CpG-ODN, and following lethal irradiation, the formulations were decorated with mannose. The study of the characterization of the double-improved vaccine evidenced the enhanced ability of DCs targeting and improved immunocompetence, which displayed an antitumor function. In the lymphoma prevention model, the Man-EG7/CH@CpG vaccine restrained tumor formation with high efficiency. Furthermore, unlike the non-improved vaccine, the double-improved vaccine elicited an enhanced antitumor effect in the lymphoma treatment model. Next, to improve the moderate therapeutic effect of the mono-treatment method, we incorporated a chemotherapeutic drug (doxorubicin, DOX) into the process of vaccination and devised a combination regimen. Fortunately, a tumor inhibition rate of ~85% was achieved via the combination therapy, which could not be achieved by mono-chemotherapy or mono-immunotherapy. In summary, the strategy presented here may provide a novel direction in the establishment of a tumor vaccine and is the basis for a prioritization scheme of immuno-chemotherapy in enhancing the therapeutic effect on NHL.