Galunisertib Drives Treg Fragility and Promotes Dendritic Cell-Mediated Immunity against Experimental Lymphoma


iScience. 2020 Sep 29;23(10):101623. doi: 10.1016/j.isci.2020.101623. eCollection 2020 Oct 23.


Galunisertib (LY2157299) is a selective ATP-mimetic inhibitor of TGF-β receptor-I activation, currently under clinical trial in a variety of cancers. We have tested the combined effects of galunisertib- and interleukin-15-activated dendritic cells in an aggressive and highly metastatic murine lymphoma. Based on the tumor-draining lymph node architecture, and its histology, the combination therapy results in better prognosis, including disappearance of the disease-exacerbating regulatory T cells.

Our data suggest that galunisertib significantly enhances the success of immunotherapy with IL-15-activated dendritic cells by limiting the regulatory T cells generation with consequent downregulation of regulatory T cells in the tumor-draining lymph nodes and vascularized organ like spleen. This is also associated with consistent loss p-SMAD2 and downregulation of Neuropilin-1, leading to better prognosis and positive outcome. These results connect the role of combined therapy with the consequent elimination of disease-exacerbating T regulatory cells in a metastatic murine lymphoma.