Ileo-colonic lymphoma: presentation, diagnosis, and management

Lymphoma
27/10/2020

Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2020 Oct 21. doi: 10.1097/MOG.0000000000000687. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), the bulk of which is located in the ileo-colonic region comprises the lymphoid cells of the gastrointestinal tract and confers specific immunological responses. Repetitive antigenic stimulation of these cells predispose to a monoclonal proliferation of this tissue and the eventual development of lymphoma. The gastrointestinal tract is the most commonly involved site of extranodal lymphomas. This review will focus primarily on


lymphomas of the ileo-colonic region (defined as the terminal ileum, the colon, and the rectum). We will discuss the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and presentation as well as current practices in diagnosis and management.

RECENT FINDINGS: Despite the majority of the GALT to be located in the ileo-colonic region of the gut, the lymphomas in this location are relatively rare. However, the overall annual incidence of ileo-colonic lymphomas is steadily increasing. This entity has a varied spectrum of clinical presentations. Ileo-colonoscopy with adequate targeted biopsies can serve as a gold standard for definitive diagnosis. Ileo-colonic lymphomas may be managed with chemotherapy alone while surgery is reserved for highly aggressive tumors or clinical emergencies. Radiation is not a preferred adjuvant treatment for lymphomas in this location of the gut. Adequate endoscopic surveillance measures and tools to potentially prevent recurrence and improve the overall prognosis of this disease are lacking.

SUMMARY: Ileo-colonic lymphomas are rare and can present with varied symptoms and signs. Endoscopy with adequate sampling can aid in making a definitive diagnosis. Chemotherapy can be highly effective in management while surgery is indicated for emergency presentations. Adequate endoscopic surveillance tools are lacking, yet imperative to prevent recurrence and improve prognosis.