AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2020 Oct 28:1-8. doi: 10.2214/AJR.19.22629. Online ahead of print.
OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to present a brief review of literature evaluating different imaging modalities with special focus on 18F-FDG PET/CT in differentiating cerebral toxoplasmosis and primary CNS lymphoma. CONCLUSION. Differentiating cerebral toxoplasmosis and primary CNS lymphoma is crucial in the care of patients with HIV infection. Delayed diagnosis can lead to considerable morbidity and mortality. The reference standard for diagnosis is biopsy and histopathologic examination. Biopsy has disadvantages due to its invasive nature and associated complications. Noninvasive imaging can be an alternative to biopsy for differentiation of toxoplasmosis and primary CNS lymphoma. Despite advances in MRI techniques, prophylaxis of opportunistic infection, and treatment of HIV infection, clinical situations continue to arise in which the diagnosis is not clear. In these instances, molecular imaging can be helpful.