Osteoporos Int. 2020 Oct 31. doi: 10.1007/s00198-020-05720-6. Online ahead of print.
There have been only a limited number of reports on primary adult T cell lymphoma/leukemia (ATL) in the bone. This is a case report of a 75-year-old patient initially reporting multiple bone pains that were attributed to osteolytic ATL. The patient developed spontaneous chest/back pain and visited a local hospital. Laboratory tests showed high levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and computed tomography (CT) revealed skeletal lesions with osteolysis. Although multiple myeloma was initially
suspected, the results of bone marrow aspiration and bone biopsy were inconsistent. After he was referred to our hospital, mild hypercalcemia (10.4 mg/dL) with low-normal intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) (27 pg/mL), low parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), and elevated 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D (1,25OH2D) levels (136 pg/mL) narrowed the differential diagnosis down to lymphomatous and granulomatous diseases, and then, the high serum soluble IL-2 receptor (3,450 U/mL) and the flower cells recognized in the peripheral blood sample suggested the involvement of ATL. Finally, the reevaluation of the iliac bone biopsy sample led us to the histological diagnosis of ATL infiltration in the bone. The subsequent two courses of chemotherapy in addition to denosumab resulted in an objective partial metabolic response indicated in 18-fluorine-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT). Although very rare, the bone involvement of ATL could be used for the differential diagnosis for local osteolytic bone pain in addition to multiple myeloma and metastatic bone diseases.