Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2020 Nov 4. doi: 10.1007/s00262-020-02778-3. Online ahead of print.
Breast implant-associated anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (BI-ALCL) is an uncommon peripheral T cell lymphoma usually presenting as a delayed peri-implant effusion. Chronic inflammation elicited by the implant has been implicated in its pathogenesis. Infection or implant rupture may also be responsible for late seromas. Cytomorphological examination coupled with CD30 immunostaining and eventual T-cell clonality assessment are essential for BI-ALCL diagnosis. However, some benign effusions may
also contain an oligo/monoclonal expansion of CD30 + cells that can make the diagnosis challenging. Since cytokines are key mediators of inflammation, we applied a multiplexed immuno-based assay to BI-ALCL seromas and to different types of reactive seromas to look for a potential diagnostic BI-ALCL-associated cytokine profile. We found that BI-ALCL is characterized by a Th2-type cytokine milieu associated with significant high levels of IL-10, IL-13 and Eotaxin which discriminate BI-ALCL from all types of reactive seroma. Moreover, we found a cutoff of IL10/IL-6 ratio of 0.104 is associated with specificity of 100% and sensitivity of 83% in recognizing BI-ALCL effusions. This study identifies promising biomarkers for initial screening of late seromas that can facilitate early diagnosis of BI-ALCL.